Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Presentation: For this venture I will break down how ladies and men act when utilizing language in easygoing circumstances? There have been numerous past exploration finding and decisions about sexual orientation and conversational conduct. For instance Jennifer Coates distinguished two methodologies, which she portrays as predominance and distinction. Jennifer Coates was an author to expounded on the language contrasts among people. Predominance contends that since ladies involve a less ground-breaking position in the public eye than men, their established conduct is less self-assured and less certain. Men are predominant inside society, so it isn't amazing that they will in general command blended sex discussions. Ladies are supposed to be utilized to male predominance, and because of social molding will frequently be affable and conscious when addressing men. Though the possibility of distinction is the place the emphasis is more on contrasts in male and female mentalities and qualities, that are supposed to be taught from adolescence, when we structure, and are affected by, single sex peer gatherings. Investigations of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s play have discovered that in boyÃ¢â¬â¢s games there is more accentuation on rivalry and showdown, while girlÃ¢â¬â¢s games are progressively agreeable. In adulthood, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s talk regularly centers around close to home emotions and issues and this assists with disclosing why their way to deal with discussion is increasingly thoughtful and strong. Additionally this Portrayal of Data: My information comprises of three transcripts; one, which occurred in a school flask between four young ladies meaning it, was casual and easygoing. My subsequent transcript occurred on a school field while three young men were watching a round of football played by individual companions. They examined the game and furthermore had foundation discussions. My third transcript is of three young ladies discussing the world cup football coordinate quickly while speaking progressively about football and encompassing subjects. I felt that my first transcript I recorded was not adequate enough to be broke down well and in detail, I along these lines recorded a further transcript to build my information and to make an increasingly mind boggling examination. Points: The point of my examination is to discover how much are there critical contrasts in the manners that people carry on discussion. Strategy: For my examination I gathered three transcripts; I did this, as this is the best method of gathering adequate information that I would have the option to break down for my particular subject. I am going to take a gander at how ladies talk in easygoing circumstances taking a gander at angles that master analysts have discovered, for example, Jennie Coates, she discovered two methodologies dependent on the thoughts of strength and contrast which I will take a gander at and attempt to discover how much do my transcripts demonstrate this. I will likewise take a gander at collaboration and rivalry as the specialists have seen that young men appear as progressively serious when utilizing language while young ladies appear to be more co usable, despite the fact that this examination was demonstrated by utilizing youngsters as models I might even now want to check whether it is as yet the situation when men and lady are more seasoned and how much they still either are serious or helpful when utilizing language. Just as looking as what the specialists have discovered I am additionally going to take a gander at the pretended by the speakers in my transcript and relate it too perspectives and qualities just as instructive foundation, which is essentially the equivalent for every speaker as they all go to the some school. I will likewise investigate the social class of the speakers. I will take a gander at the status, reason, setting and crowd for every transcript and break down every point in like manner. I am additionally going to take a gander at the 6 systems Ã¢â¬ lexis, semantics, phonology, graphology, sentence structure, talk, pragmatics and the sociolinguistics which has been characterizes as the investigation of language in its social setting. Examination: Above all else I will examine the setting of my information. The main transcript is between four companions at times five when they add to the discussion. The discussion is exceptionally casual and easygoing with no genuine importance or reason aside from associating during break time, which implies the discussion is very compelled somewhat despite the fact that they were discussing what they jumped at the chance to discuss. All the ladies contributed similarly I would state; to the discussion. In spite of the fact that ladies are naturally and socially known for being very proficient and great at making discussion there isn't a ton of demonstrate from the specialists or scientists that proposes that guys don't make discussion or are any less fit. In this way when taking a gander at the menÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion I saw that they were similarly as capable and great at making discussion. The menÃ¢â¬â¢s discussion was between three individuals once in a while four or five when they added to the discussion. This discussion was additionally exceptionally casual and easygoing and was likewise something that the men needed to discuss. In the discussion you can see that between them there is one progressively predominant male who will in general start discussion and hinder or cover different speakers additionally could be know as holding the floor. Anyway I explored about strength in discussion and read, Ã¢â¬Å"you just donÃ¢â¬â¢t get people in conversationÃ¢â¬ by Deborah Tanning and she said Ã¢â¬Å"claiming that interference is an indication of predominance accept that discussion is an action wherein each speaker talks in turn, yet this reflects belief system more than training. She likewise said that she recorded discussions in which numerous voices were heard without a moment's delay and obviously everybody was making some acceptable memories. She at that point solicited individuals from their impressions of the discussion and they said they had a good time. Anyway when she played the tape back they were humiliated about their conversational style. Which recommends that when individuals being female or male do rule the discussion they perhaps donÃ¢â¬â¢t acknowledge they are doing it. I additionally found that in my other female discussion between three young ladies there was one somewhat progressively predominant member fundamentally because of her character, anyway it was likewise as a rule fruitful helpful over lapping as the over lapping is certain and as Deborah tanning says in her book Ã¢â¬ the covers are agreeable in light of the fact that they don't change the point however expound on it. Anyway in my male discussion there is ineffective agreeable covering as when a member says he had England trialsÃ¢â¬ (alluding to a companion outside the discussion) another member says Ã¢â¬Å"yer yet donÃ¢â¬â¢t he look like dwindle panÃ¢â¬ which is very negative and stops the discussion which is a negative reaction that doesn't empower the discussion to continue without changing the point. In one of my transcripts where the four or five female members are chatting on member says, Ã¢â¬Å"Err she looks truly badÃ¢â¬ (alluding to a big name in a magazine that looks unpleasant) by saying the word Ã¢â¬Å"reallyÃ¢â¬ she is increasing what she is stating. In my different transcripts there are two instances of ladies utilizing intensifiers, one where a member says, Ã¢â¬Å"sheÃ¢â¬â¢s truly prettyÃ¢â¬ and another when a member says Ã¢â¬Å"well I think subside hunker is very truly cuteÃ¢â¬ Robin Lakoff distributed a powerful record of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s language. In a related article she distributed a lot of fundamental presumptions about what checks out the language of ladies. Among these suppositions were the utilization of intensifiers particularly the words Ã¢â¬ËsoÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËveryÃ¢â¬â¢ for instance Ã¢â¬ IÃ¢â¬â¢m so happy to see youÃ¢â¬ I discovered intensifiers inside my female transcripts however none in my male transcripts. Anyway as my transcripts were very short and the time I needed to gather my information was constrained in the event that I had more information I could have contrasted this all the more decently with show signs of improvement and faired results. Zimmerman and West (1915) taped casual discussions between understudies in bistros, shops and other open spots. They found that ladies talk about Ã¢â¬ËfeelingsÃ¢â¬â¢ while men talk progressively about Ã¢â¬ËthingsÃ¢â¬â¢. Ladies discussion is frequently centered around close to home encounters, connections and issues. The subject of male discussion will in general be progressively concrete, identifying with data, realities articles and exercises. Furthermore, from my own encounters these finding are exact yet additionally my information could propose this too, for instance in my females transcripts there is reference to an individual encounter that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t truly have an influence in the structure of the discussion, it is very arbitrary. The member says Ã¢â¬ Rory consistently revises my spelling its well irritating on msn he generally like sorts things in a little star and afterward says right spellingÃ¢â¬ the take an interest gets hindered while saying this as it is nothing to do with the discussion. Additionally in my transcript I can see that men utilize more no-no language than ladies accomplish for instance in my male discussion one member says Ã¢â¬Å"fucking legendÃ¢â¬ while in my female discussion there was no swearing words utilized. Anyway as my transcripts were very short they don't identify with all females.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Ladies Empowerment Essay Ã¢â¬Å"There is no possibility of the government assistance of the world except if the state of ladies is improved. It isn't feasible for a fledgling to fly on one wing.Ã¢â¬ Master Vivekananda The most huge and longest social development proceeding is development for liberation of ladies. In spite of the fact that the essential objective for ladies strengthening is to improve the personal satisfaction of ladies yet it has likewise profound implications in social, monetary and political situation of body commonwealth. The media through its range to individuals everywhere has been instrumental however not to the degree wanted in supporting the development for ladies liberation by centering disregard and underestimation of the situation of the ladies in the public eye. It sounds interesting how from a profoundly honorable situation in IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s mythic history, the lady in India has been consigned to an optional position. The personal stakes of the decision world class and the male anteroom impacted by outsider societies legitimized lady as a person of little outcome. It would be a miserable discourse on the subordinate job of ladies in India when lady is obviously seen as Shakti (Power), the starting point of intensity itself however in all actuality found as defenseless, hapless lady with no character aside from that of a spouse, or the mother who has next to no voice in dynamic and has almost no by method of her own essential decision. Despite the fact that oppression and misuse of ladies are worldwide wonders, their results are progressively sad in the a few pieces of the globe especially in immature nations where, numbness, hardship of the essential * Address by Mr. Equity G.N. Beam, Chairman, Press Council of India at the introduction meeting of National Press Day on November 16, 2008 at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi. 2 necessities of life, and the ever-developing weight of progress from custom to advancement all join to irritate the disparities that ladies endure to a point where their reality is diminished to a persistent fight for endurance. Improving the status of ladies is viewed as the way to narrowing the sexual orientation hole and accomplishing a superior personal satisfaction. Ladies are under incredible social control and investigation which has limited what they can say and where and to whom. Social moves in pretty much every social set-up decide womenÃ¢â¬â¢s socialization beyond all doubt. This has a significant bearing on their capacity to impart and communicate their contemplations. To examine ladies strengthening it is important to manage the current circumstance of ladies in India. I might want to quickly examine certain key viewpoints identified with the ladies which media ought to satisfactorily cover and encourage the procedure of strengthening of ladies. Sexual orientation Inequality A larger part of Indian ladies work for the duration of their lives however the truth of the matter is that it isn't authoritatively perceived. Measurements on work power shows low figure of ladies laborers. There is a genuine underestimation of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment as laborers despite the fact that whenever given an opportunity they have convincingly demonstrated their capacity. WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce cooperation the level of grown-up ladies who are really working is acknowledged pointer of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s status and part of the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) utilized in GNDP Human Development Reports. As indicated by a review directed by NCW covering more than 1200 ladies in both sorted out and chaotic area it has been discovered that half experienced sexual orientation segregation by method of physical and mental provocation of ladies at work. The overview detailed separation in compensation as well as in advancements, work conveyance and working hours. Advancing sex correspondence was distinguished by the Government as need vital objective for the UN System in3 India under UN Development Assistance Framework. We ought not overlook that Gender Equality isn't only a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s issue. It is an issue for the country. Compensation segregation Ladies for the most part acquire a far lower wage than men accomplishing a similar work. In no state in India ladies and men acquire equivalent pay in agribusiness. This is similarly material to different zones of works, for example, mining, exchange, transport administrations and so on. In the different work areas normal wages earned by male is more than the wages earned by female. I would underscore on the discoveries of UNDP which were distributed as Human Development Report concerning sexual orientation equity. It says: Ã¢â¬Å"WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s work is significantly underestimated in monetary term. The estimation of family unit and network work rises above market value.Ã¢â¬ The media can surely uncover a portion of these inclinations in. Uniquely, ladies columnists must take up this reason. The Indian constitution makes it obligatory to give equivalent assurance to each resident. Along these lines thoughtful media, legal executive and official should represent this together. Change development also is fundamental in such manner. Wrongdoing against ladies The taking off crime percentages and viciousness against ladies in the nation reflects ladies as more vulnerable sex who are being commanded and misused. They face savagery inside and outside the family for the duration of their lives. The Crime Record Bureau of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s site shows that in the year 2006 (most recent information accessible on site) complete wrongdoing revealed against ladies was 1, 91731. Police record shows that a lady is attacked in the nation at regular intervals; an assault happens like clockwork and like clockwork an episode of lewd behavior happens. At regular intervals a lady is grabbed and like clockwork, a lady is killed.4 Before strengthening of ladies can be accomplished it is important to empower ladies to offer voice to their experience, their sufferings, and for society to comprehend them as individual and react to them with affectability. Under Representation in significant position Ladies are under spoken to in administration and dynamic positions. At present ladies speak to roughly 8-9% of Parliamentary seats and under 6% of bureau positions. Under 4% situates in High Courts and Supreme Courts are involved by ladies. Under 3% of chairmen are ladies. Wellbeing A huge number of Indian ladies just come up short on the opportunity to leave the house looking for wellbeing administrations they need. As per National Health Survey Ã¢â¬ 2 just 52% ladies in India are not counseled on choice about their own wellbeing. The antenatal and postnatal consideration are past the compass of numerous Indian ladies. The National Health Survey Ã¢â¬ 2 gauge makes reference to that somewhere in the range of 1,00,000 to 1,20,000 ladies bite the dust each year because of pregnancy related causes. In certain States passing rate is very high and disturbing. The rate in India is very higher than the maternal death rate overviewed in Cuba, China, Srilanka and Vietnam. Most of ladies experience life in condition of healthful pressure. They are pale and malnourished. Young ladies and ladies face segregation inside the family; eating last and least. Hole on Male-Female Ratio Men out number ladies in India, not at all like in numerous nations where the case is something else. The fundamental driver of the hole in the male female proportion is winning act of female baby executing extraordinarily high in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan. In these states, the proportion is amazingly low when contrasted with other Indian states. Female newborn child death rates are higher than male baby 5 death rates. Test Registration System (2000) uncovers that female newborn child death rate is 74 for each 1000 live birth. The broad communications needs to concentrate on this medical problem of ladies. The different plan joined by the govt. requires more extensive inclusion with the goal that ladies particularly from financially more fragile area can be profited by them. Ladies Education Instruction of ladies empowers them to set their own needs, look for information and data to settle on their educated decisions. The proficiency rate among ladies keeps on being lower than those for men. According to information of 2004-2005 accessible with the National Sample Survey, education rate per 1000 among country ladies is roughly 450 and among urban female is right around 700. On the off chance that we see generally speaking situation, there has been a positive turn of events and female education rate has gone up half according to the National Sample Survey 1997 report. Notwithstanding this advancement beyond what 245 million Indian ladies can not peruse and compose. Just half of Indian ladies are educated when contrasted with 65.5% of men. Far less young ladies than young men go to class. Regardless of whether they are selected, a large number of the young lady understudies drop out of the school. The female grown-up proficiency rate in Malaysia, Srilanka, China, Vietnam, and Indonesia is over 70% and higher than that in India. MediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Role in strengthening of ladies in India Correspondence is critical for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s improvement and broad communications assume huge job. It is to be noticed that development of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s training and their entrance into work have added to the development of media. In all circles of life whether for controlling populace development, spread of education or improving personal satisfaction for tremendous masses, ladies have pivotal task to carry out. Notwithstanding, ladies can be relied upon to assume this job when they become aware of their quality and are not purposely minimized by male mastery. In this unique situation, media has a significant task to carry out Ã¢â¬ to make arousing in ladies to accomplish their potential as the central players of progress in the public eye. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world, print and electronic media assume a fundamental job in adequately passing on message that should be passed on. Depiction of ladies by the Media All things considered the media scene in India is that media doesn't address significant issues about abuse and inequal treatment to ladies in various circles however is sharp in announcing sex related occurrences by method of sensationalizing updates on outrages on ladies. In this way as opposed to featuring the abuse of lady they wind up getting one reason in increment of viciousness as their inclusion usually will in general laud the wrongdoing against ladies. The facts demonstrate that media has exposed, as n
Monday, August 17, 2020
What is FISA Here Are 4 Things to Know About the Controversial Spy Law Surveillance has become a big issue in America and the world over the last two decades.Since the September 11 attacks of 2001, the US government has done its best to gather as much intelligence as it can about clandestine, foreign operations that may be a threat to national security.Surveillance, by its very definition, is highly intrusive. US citizens have the right to privacy, and this is protected by legislation.One of the most famous and controversial laws in charge of protecting such privacy is the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA).Set in 1978, it has over the years expanded its mandate as amendments were made to accommodate changing circumstances.Such amendments include the controversial Patriot Act which was passed in 2001, following the September 11 terrorist attacks.Another famous amendment is the USA Freedom Act, passed in 2015, in the wake of the damning 2013 Edward Snowden leaks.In 2001, amendments were inspired by external attacks. In 2015, amendments were ins pired by a public outrage after Edward Snowdenâs Leaks revealed that the NSA was collecting Americansâ phone data in bulk.With such major concerns about data privacy, it stands to reason that any American would want to understand what FISA and the other such acts are all about.Thatâs a lot of information to wade through. To make your work easier, we decided to gather all the necessary information and present it in one easy-to-read article.WHAT IS FISA? FISA stands for Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. It is a US federal law which was passed in 1978, with the mandate of establishing the procedures to be taken in the event of physical or electronic surveillance, when collecting intelligence information about persons suspected of being foreign spies or being involved in terrorism.In May 18, 1977, Senator Ted Kennedy introduced the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, sponsoring the bill together with 8 other senators, and on 25 October 1978 President Jimmy Carter passed it into law.FISA came about as a result of investigations by the Senate Committees that questioned the legality of domestic intelligence agencies.This grew from two separate investigations by Sam Erwin and Frank Church into how President Richard Nixonâs used federal resources, including law enforcement agencies, to spy on activist and political groups.The intention of the act was to provide congressional and judicial oversight of the US governmentâs surveillance activities of foreign individuals or entities in the US, while still maintaining the necessary secrecy required to protect national security.4 THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT FISAFISCThe FISA law established and authorized the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court (FISC or FISA Court).FISC has the mandate of governing requests made for surveillance warrants against foreign secret agents and spies in the United States by intelligence agencies and federal law enforcement.These kinds of requests are most often made by the National Sec urity Agency (NSA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).The FISA law and its court were created based on the recommendations of the US Senateâs Church Committee. The FISA law has been amended several times since the September 11 terrorist attacks.The court was originally (from 1978 to 2009) housed on the sixth floor of the Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, but from 2009 onwards it relocated to the E. Barrett Prettyman United States Courthouse located in Washington, D.C.Compositions of the FISCAt its founding, the court consisted of seven federal district judges, all appointed by the US Chief Justice and each serving a term of seven years.A new judge was appointed each year. The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 increased the number from seven judges to eleven, requiring that at least three FISC judges live within twenty miles of the District of Columbia.A FISC judge cannot be appointed more than once.No judge can be appointed to the FISA court as well as the Court o f Review. In appointing the FISC judges, the Chief Justice does not seek confirmation or get oversight from the US congress.Critics have seen this as giving too much power to one person which can lead to bias.They feel that it creates a situation where the Chief Justice will appoint like-minded judges and consequently create a court that has no diversity.Operation of the CourtDue to the sensitivity of its work, the court has to uphold a high level of secrecy. It is a âsecret courtâ and its hearings are closed to the public.Though the records of the court proceedings are kept, they are not available to the public.However there have been occasions where copies of some records have been availed to the public, but with classified information redacted.The classified nature of the courtâs proceedings means that in most cases only lawyers licensed to practice in front of the US government can appear before the FISC.Furthermore, owing to the nature of the matters presented before this court hearings can take place at any time of the day, night, weekday, or weekend.For that reason, at least one FISC judge must be âon callâ at all times.Criticisms Against the CourtSince the 2011 September 11 attacks, criticism for the FISC has grown.One of the main reasons for the criticism is the fact that the FISC sits ex parte.Only the judge and the government are present at the hearings.Furthermore, the court has been criticized for rejecting very few requests â" critics of the court have called it a ârubber stampâ. FISA warrants approved, modified and rejected since act came into effect. Source: ZednetResponding to accusations of the court being a rubber stamp FISA Court president Reggie B. Walton said that the annual statistics Congress receives from the AG, and frequently cited in press reports to point out the courtâs high approval rating, do not show the fact that a lot of these applications have to undergo alterations before the final submission.He said that some do not even get submitted after it has been indicated that a judge would not approve them.Walton further stated that due to the Courtâs questions and demands, the government had revamped 24.4% of its requests in the period between July 1, 2013 and September 30, 2013.A 2003 Senate Judiciary Committee tasked with investigating the implementation failures of FISA concluded that while it was necessary to keep some individual FISA cases secret, this secrecy had been extended to even the most basic procedural and legal aspects of th e FISA that should not be secret.The committee concluded that this unnecessary secrecy caused deficiencies that made it difficult to properly investigate implementation of FISA.The committee advised that more information should be availed to the public or to congress â" for instance, unclassified opinions and the operating rules of the FISA Court and the Court of Review.FISCRFISCR is the acronym for the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. It is a US federal court with the mandate of reviewing denied applications for electronic surveillance warrants (known as FISA warrants). The FISCR, just like the FISC, was established by the FISA Act in 1978.It is composed of a panel of three judges. As is with the case with the FISC, request to the FISCR are only made by the federal government.Briefs may however be submitted by other parties in the role of amici curiae.As with the FISC, the records the proceedings are held in secret and the records kept classified.Copies of procee dings may be occasionally made public, but sensitive information has to be redacted. The government has the right to appeal the FISCRâs decisions to the Supreme Court.The FISA Act does not include any provision for review/appeal of a granted application, only a denial.The reason is because in both the FISC and the FISCR courts, the government is the only party before the court.The Court of Review consists of district or appellate federal judges, all appointed by the Chief Justice of the United States to serve seven-year terms.The terms are staged in such a way that there is always at least two years between consecutive appointments. Judges can only be appointed once to either the FISC or the FISCR.Notable CasesThe first time for the FISCR to be called into session was in 2002 in a case known as In re: Sealed Case No. 02-001.In this case, the FISC had granted a surveillance warrant, but with restrictions on how the warrant could be used.The FISC stated that any evidence collected b y the FBI under the warrant could not be used in criminal cases.When the matter came to the Court of Review, it ruled that the restrictions violated both FISA and the USA PATRIOT Act, that there was no constitutional requirement for the restrictions.On August 2008, in a heavily redacted opinion known as In re Directives [redacted text] Pursuant to Section 105B of the FISA, which was released on the fifteenth of January, 2009, the FISCR affirmed the constitutionality of the Protect America Act of 2007.FISA WARRANTSAn application for a surveillance warrant under FISA is made before one of the judges of the FISC. The FISC may allow amici curiae (third parties who submit briefs to the court).In case the Attorney General determines the situation is an emergency, he or she may authorize emergency employment of electronic surveillance prior to getting necessary authorization from the FISC.This is provided the AG or the AGâs designee notifies a FISC judge at the time of authorization and applies for a warrant the soonest possible â" but within less than seven days of issuing authorization for the surveillance.If one FISC judge denies the application, the federal government is not permitted to make the same application to another FISC judge.It is, however, allowed to appeal to the United States Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. It is a rare event for such appeals to occur â" the first one was in 2002, 24 years after the founding of the court.It is also highly rare for the FISC to turn down a FISA warrant request. In the 25 years between 1979 and 2004, the FISC granted 18,742 warrants but only rejected four. Of all the accepted requests, fewer than 200 required any modification before being approved.Almost all the modified requests were in 2003 and 2004. The four rejected ones all happened in 2003, and even then they were all partially granted after they were submitted for reconsideration.From 2004 to 2012, just eight years, The FISC granted 15,100 warrants and only rejected seven.AMENDMENTS TO THE FISA ACTThe FISA act has undergone a number of amendments. In 2001, FISA was amended by the USA PATRIOT Act.The main change was to include terrorism on behalf of groups not backed by a foreign government.In August 5, 2007, an overhaul of FISA known as the Protect America Act of 2007 was signed into law, expiring on February 17, 2008. In July 9, 2008, the US Congress passed the FISA Amendments Act of 2008.It added a new Title VII to the Act, which was supposed to expire at the end of 2012 but was extended to December 31, 2017 by Congress. In 2017, Congress passed a six-year extension of the FISA Amendments Act of 2017.The USA PATRIOT Act of 2001It is an Act of the US Congress and is commonly referred to as the âPatriot Actâ.President George W. Bush signed it into law on October 26, 2001. The title âUSA PATRIOT Act of 2001â is, in fact, an acronym, standing for: Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001â.It was a 23-year old Congressional staffer, Chris Kyle, who coined the acronym.The legislation came as a response to the September 11 attacks and the 2001 anthrax attacks. Congress passed the Patriot Act with the aim of strengthening National Security.In Title II of the Patriot Act, it made amendments to FISA. Title II is titled Enhanced Surveillance Procedures.It covers the surveillance of persons suspected of being terrorists, those who are suspected of computer fraud, and foreign agents engaging in clandestine activities.Many of the highly criticized, controversial aspects of the Patriot Act are in Title /II. Title II gives government agencies the liberty to gather âforeign intelligence informationâ not just from non-US citizens, but also US citizens.Title II also made changes to FISA, making this collection of foreign intelligence information the significant purpose of FISA-based surveillance. Previously, it had bee n the primary purpose.It is a subtle change in definition, with the intention of removing a legal âwallâ that existed between criminal investigations and surveillance with the intention of collecting foreign intelligence.This legal wall often hampered investigations in cases where criminal and foreign surveillance had an overlap. The FISCR, however, found that the existence of this wall was a long-held misinterpretation by government agencies.It also removed statutory requirement that the government should prove a FISA surveillance target was a non-US citizen and agent of a foreign power.It did, however, require that investigations should not be undertaken on citizens carrying out First Amendment-protected activities.Furthermore Title II expanded the duration of FISA physical search and surveillance orders. Title II provided authorities with the liberty to share information gathered before a federal grand jury with other agencies. Title II also broadened the scope and availabili ty of surveillance and wiretapping orders.Several provisions of the Patriot Act have expired. Due to lack of Congressional approval, parts of the Act expired on June 1, 2015.However, on June 2, 2015, with the passing of the USA Freedom Act, these expired parts were restored and renewed through 2019.Protect America Act of 2007President George W. Bush signed the Protect America Act of 2007 into law on August 5, 2007.It is one of the controversial amendments to FISA.The Protect America Act removed the requirement that government should have a warrant to conduct surveillance of foreign secret agents âreasonably believedâ to be outside the US.As a substitute for the warrant requirement, the bill allowed a system of National Security Agency internal controls.It also required that the FISA court should be notified of any warrantless surveillance not more than 72 hours after such surveillance was authorized.Furthermore the bill allowed the government to monitor Americans communicating w ith any foreign targets of a US terrorism investigation.Such surveillance could happen without requiring a court order or oversight, so long as it did not target a particular person âreasonably believed to beâ in the US.In addition, the government did not need a FISA warrant to monitor any foreign-related communication, even if it involved a US location, either on the receiving or sending end. It also did not need a warrant to monitor foreign-foreign communications.While the FISA Amendments of 2008 repealed the Protect America Act, it reauthorized many of its provisions in Title VII of FISA.Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 Amendments Act of 2008The short title is FISA Amendments Act of 2008. It is a Congressional Act that amended FISA. This act is the legal basis for many surveillance programs revealed by famous whistleblower Edward Snowden in 2013.The FISA Amendments Act added a new Title VII to FISA. Title VII contained many provisions which were similar, though n ot identical, to the provisions of the Protect America Act of 2007. The latter had expired earlier in 2008.While the Title VII provisions were set to expire on December 31, 2012, the US Senate gave the FISA Amendments Act an extension of five years.On January 19, 2018, President Donald Trump signed the FISA Amendments Reauthorization Act of 2017 into law.This act has many controversial provisions.For instance, it gave telecommunication companies the immunity for cooperation with authorities. It released them from liabilities, so that no action can be brought against them in a court.Previously, warrantless surveillance, as introduced by the Protect America Act of 2007, could be undertaken for not more than 72 hours.The FISA Amendments Act extended that to 7 days, provided the FISC is given notice and an application and specific officials sign the emergency notification.The target of this warrantless surveillance must be an American located outside the country with probable cause that they are a foreign powerâs agent.The Act also featured provisions that curtailed government power.For instance, prohibiting government from invoking war powers to supersede surveillance rules.It also prohibited the targeting of a foreigner with the intention of listening in on an Americanâs calls or e-mails without first getting court approval.USA FREEDOM Act of 2015The USA FREEDOM Act of 2015 is an acronym for Uniting and Strengthening America by Fulfilling Rights and Ensuring Effective Discipline Over Monitoring Act of 2015.This law was enacted on June 2, 2015. It restored, though in a modified form, several provisions contained in the Patriot Act. The Patriot Act had expired the previous day.This act introduced new limits on bulk collection of telecommunication metadata on citizens of the US by intelligence/ agencies such as the NSA. It also reauthorized roving wiretaps and the tracking of lone wolf terrorists.The act was originally inspired by the 2013 Edward Snowden leaks of classified NSA memos that described bulk data collection programs.After these disclosures, many members of Congress felt that restoring the trust of the public would need legislative changes.Supporters of the act stated that it was going to end bulk collection of Americansâ metadata by the NSA, terminate the secret laws created by the FISC, and introduce a âSpecial Advocateâ who would represent the public and privacy matters.Opponents, on the other hand, pointed out that the act did, in fact, allow bulk collection of citizensâ metadata by phone companies.This data was accessible to the NSA.They also pointed out that the act does not address other laws which curtailed on the Fourth Amendment rights of Americans.WRAPPING UPThe FISA act was formulated with the aim of allowing the government to conduct surveillance on people it believed were a threat to national security.However, this act has always attracted a lot of controversy because of the potential for the act to be use d to justify surveillance of and collection of information from American citizens.While there is definitely so much more about the FISA than covered in this article, we hope that it has shed some more light on this law and helped you understand some of your rights regarding the act.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
February 22, 2013 Period: 1, 5 Literature/Comp. Honors 2 Mr. Blair Holy Grail Essay For those who want to save their life will loose it..., were the words of Jesus Christ himself. What this means exactly is that one must give up all desired in the temporary life so that they can focus on faith for the eternal after life. In the Holy Grail, countless examples and tests are depicted for the knights of Arthur s round table to try to loose themselves. Although this was no easy task for them, some managed to see the Grail while others didn t. In this eassy, one will be able to understand the main allegory of loosing ones self through chronologically examining the start of the tale, the adventures of some of the knights, and theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦What Percivale failed to see was that this was a test, a test to see if all the things he wanted would seem unappealing after the sand experiences. He was about to give in to temptation but he then remembered the words of his king and went on his way. While Percivale had this experience, Lancelot had a totally different one where some could say that he lost all his sanity. The difference lay in that Lancelot had a horrible sin to his name while Percivale didn t. Lancelot was told by Arthur that he could make it because even a seedling could bloom on a swamp. What this meant was that no matter how deep Lancelot was in his sin, God would find a way to forgive him. So Lancelot went ahead on his journey but he tried to commit suicide as he went on a boat and out to sea for seven days. On the seventh day, he got a break from the sea- just as God did- and landed at the shores of Carbonek where his son Galahad had been born. All the way to the entrance, lion statues kept appearing as his symbol was the lion. This was to represent that he was about to have some conflict with himself. As he crosses two lions at the entrance, they take away his sword as he subconciously is prepairing himself to enter in his realm of curing himself. As Lancelot entered the castle, he could see nothing as h is soul was at the time empty at the bottom. He heard a voice calling him from above in the direction of whereShow MoreRelatedEssay about The Once and Future King1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Once and Future King, or King Arthur, is a legend that is, despite its age, known by all. Everyone has heard of King Arthur and his loyal knights that make up the Round Table, but the rest of the famous legend is less known. If asked about ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s parentage or birthplace, most people would not know. How many people can name off ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s knights? Everyone knows ArthurÃ¢â¬â¢s name, but the details are less defined. Arthurian legend has many parts, the first being how Arthur came into being, then theRead More King Arthur Essay example1872 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesKing Arthur If the name of King Arthur is mentioned, I suppose what comes to mind is not so much one person as a whole array of characters and themes, a montage so to speak. Of course we do think first of the King, the magnificent monarch of a glorified or idealized medieval realm. But we think also of his Queen, of the fair and wayward Guinevere, we think of his enchanter, Merlin, who presided over his birth, who set him on the throne, who established him there in the early and traveled daysRead More Comparing Individuality and Transcendence in Wordsworth, Tennyson, and Joyce2267 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesindividual to community. It Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã is only through community, according to Tennyson, that one can realize Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã self-sacrifice and find a leader to follow. In The Idylls of the King, the Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã model of Arthur and the Round Table serves as a metaphor for Christ and Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã the apostles. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In The Holy Grail, Percivales quest illustrates the dangers of Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã individualism turned into selfishness, and his outer world reflects his Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã inner decay. PercivalesRead MoreAnalysis Of King Arthur And The Knights Of The Round Table1901 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesKing Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table is an incredible story of bravery, and knights who fight for those that cannot and for the greater goodÃ¢â¬â¢s future. But it is only a legend, there is not enough factual evidence that King Arthur actually existed, only he could have been based off of another general or great leader in that time and created by a writerÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination. 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In order to understand the usage of the two literary forms, three thematic subjects are used to illustrate thisÃ¢â¬âDean Moriarty the romantic and alienated hero, the West as romantic idyll-cum- land of disillusionment, and Mexico, the last frontier of pure sky, sunshine and the spirit of the indigenous people countered with the reality of Ã¢â¬Å"alleys . . . with open sewersÃ¢â¬Å"(300). The first subject is the protagonist, Dean Moriarty
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
According to AccountingTools (n.d.), corporate controllers are responsible Ã¢â¬Å"for the accounting operations of the company,Ã¢â¬ including: the development of recurring financial reports, Ã¢â¬Å"maintenance of Ã¢â¬ ¦ accounting records, and a comprehensive set of controls and budgets designed to mitigate risk, enhance the accuracy of Ã¢â¬ ¦ reported financial results, and ensure that reports results comply with Ã¢â¬ ¦ financial reporting standardsÃ¢â¬ (para. 2). In other words, controllers are the chief accountants in their organizations. Besides their basic daily accounting functions and managing the accounting staff, controllers must maintain internal controls and assume expanding responsibilities in their firms to reflect the changing roles in the controllership position. In a typical midsize or large business, the accounting department will usually have accounting clerks, payroll clerks, staff accountants, senior accountants, an accounting manager, and other accounting positions (e.g., accounts payable clerks, accounts receivable manager, etc.). However, most accounting departments of midsize or large corporations will be led by a controller or someone with similar responsibilities (e.g., finance director, etc.). Controllers are essential to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s back office operations. For instance, they are responsible for the timely completion of payroll, manage the daily functions of accounts payable and other cash disbursements, comply with government reporting and tax requirements, and ensure theShow MoreRelatedCase 3-3: Rendell Company , Case Analysis on Management Control System1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdivisional controller and the corporate controller. 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Major strategic thrusts include targeted acquisitions, organic growth viaRead MoreSolution Essays1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesof establishing an in-house internal audit function, which previously had been outsourced. The company began this process by hiring a Director of Internal Audits. Nano CircuitsÃ¢â¬â¢ CEO recently called a planning meeting to discuss the roles of key corporate participants regarding the implementation and maintenance of internal controls. Central to this decision is the organizational placement of the future internal audit function and to whom the new Director of Internal Audit should report. In additionRead MoreDetermining t he Organization Chart of a Typical Organization769 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesmarketing, manufacturing and any other department which the company has in it. Generally, the CFO meets with heads of each and every department in the organization to do planning for the each department. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
There are many impacts and implications of academic stress on the health of an individual in the academic environment as a student. Some of these impacts and implications are time management skills, social life, and being employed. This paper will be examining the role and significance of the perception in the academic environment and how there is an increase of stress and anxiety in college. We will write a custom essay sample on Impacts and Implications of Stress or any similar topic only for you Order Now Also, I will construct my personal Medicine Wheel to show how can manage my own stress and anxiety being in the Coco optional Therapist Assistant and Physiotherapist program (TOT/PTA). The first impact and implication that will be being discussed is time management skills and how it increases stress and anxiety in college. Firstly, transiting from high-school into college brings on a huge amount of stress because itÃ¢â¬â¢s completely two different worlds and adjusting is very hard for some. This may cause the Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and this is the cost common type of anxiety, it is a Ã¢â¬Å"ongoing state of mental and/or physical tension and nervousness, either without a specific causeÃ¢â¬ (Put Reference). Some of the symptoms are constant restlessness, irritation, trouble concentrating, and fatigue. Another impact and implication is assignments, and this is because coming straight from high-school I had no idea how to prioritize my assignments and all the workload at once. So this would lead me o mini panic attacks because would feel overwhelmed with assignments and test all coming at once and not wanting to fail. Lastly, studying was an enormous stress factor because had no study habits nor a study group. This made things difficult because also didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to pick out important information from the slides. All of these implications increased stress and anxiety in the academic environment causing my health to decrease because of the lack of sleep, over eating and mentally drained. How to cite Impacts and Implications of Stress, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: Discuss about theLaw for Sexually Transmitted Disease. Answer: Introduction: Sexually transmitted infections are very common in the young people, and especially those who are sexually active. Such infections endanger the long term health of youth such as it is not possible to cure some STI and some STI damage the reproductive system if it is not treated. Because of these issues it is desirable to provide information related to sexual health problems, and availing the treatments on time is the best solution to reduce and prevent these infections (Dehne Reidner, 2001). This essay states the one sexually transmitted disease which is common in the young people who are sexually active. In this paper, we discuss Chlamydia among young people and lastly paper is concluded with brief conclusion. Sexually Transmitted disease: Sexually transmitted infections are not new, but STI rates in Australia and in other developed nations had been rising in recent years. As per the health data issued by Kirby institute, almost 18,588 cases of STI were detected in the year 2015 and almost 8388 cases in 2006. STI cases were almost doubled in last few years. This is the data of one infection only, and this story is almost similar in other infections also (Advocates for Youth, n.d.) . Various STI are detected in young generation, and the infection of Chlamydia in sexually active youth was 4.8% in Addis Adaba, and it is considered as the most common infection in the sexually active students (Taffa Sundby, 2002). Chlamydia: It must be noted that, Chlamydia is considered as treatable disease and notifications related to this disease is continue to increase each year. Risk related to this infection is highest in people aged 15 to 24 and almost 80% cases occurred in this age group. Almost 2200 womens were diagnosed in 2011 with chlamydia in per 100,000 people. However, almost 50% of men and 80% of women diagnosed are asymptomatic and because of this it is typical to reporting them. Usually, womens are more likely to diagnose as compared to men, and this trend is revered in the age of 30 years. It is agreed by experts that in case of chlamydia most the increase is related to diagnosing testing. Advanced technology created more accurate tests because of which it is easy to identify the infection. Numbers of tests are introduced for identifying these infections. More number of people used these tests for the purpose of testing the infections, and unfortunately more positive results are found. Detecting more n umber of infections is considered good thing because it became easy to cure this infection, but it is also considered as change which considered more dramatic as compared to reality. Generally, chlamydia is established because of oral sex, anal, vagina, and very often touching an eye with the hand if such hand has infected fluids on it. Women suffer bleeding between their periods or after sex, and pain in your pelvis or lower abdomen, or pain when urinating, and yellowish discharge with smell which is not unusual. Generally, there are no symptoms of this infection because of which it is hard identify this infection. It must be noted that almost 70-95% women with chlamydia experience no symptoms and in case of men almost 90% of men experience no symptoms of chlamydia (PopSugar, 2014). This infection is considered as bacterial infection which usually infects the prostate, urethra, testes in men and the cervix, uterus, and pelvis in women. It must be noted that chlamydia does not carry any symptoms with it and most of the people are not aware that they have this infection and they need treatment. In case it is left untreated then it can cause serious issues such as in men it can result in inflammation of the upper genital tract and infertility, and in case of women it can result in ectopic pregnancies, chronic pelvic pain and infertility. It also increases the chances of contracting with other infections too such as HIV. Treatment related to this infection is critical as both patient and their partner will be treated with antibiotics before they have sex again, and get tested again in almost 3-4 months for the purpose of ensuring that it is completely gone (ABC, 2016). Statics related to Chlamydia: In 2011 this infection is the most reported infection in Australia, as almost 79833 cases related to this infection was found in people or almost 435 cases in every 100,000 population. This was almost 7 times hike in the rates of reportable STI gonorrhea. This rate is almost more than tripled in past decades, which increase from 130 notifications per 100,000 in 2001. As stated, in the year 2011 more women were found suffering from chlamydia as compared to men. Almost 43636 women were diagnosed with the infection as compared to 33197 men who were aged between 15 years and above. Women aged between 15 and 19 years had increasing rates of diagnosis in 2011 with 2228 per 100,000 receive positive diagnosis. Overall, chlamydia diagnosis for men and women aged between 15 and 29 years accounted for 82% of diagnoses for the whole population (ABC, 2017). Reasons behind chlamydia and its effect on health: Chlamydia is considered as most common sexual infections in Australia, and there are number of people who did not know that this infection is increasing at the alarming rate. In the period of 1980, AIDS is epidemic and now message related to safe sex has given to deaf ears and because of which rates related to STI is increased. Leaders of the STI is chlamydia which is a bacterial infection and very common in both men and women. As per the experts, increase in the rate of chlamydia is not a topic of distress because now we are diagnosed this issue because of which rates are increasing. Experts further stated that young people are happy to be tested for chlamydia, because it is the only way through which this disease can be reduced, and doctors also offered young people to test this disease on the ground that if we test it more than we found it more. The main reason behind this disease is the increasing number of teenage sex, and now age of first intercourse is reduced as now average age of first sex is 15 years, and in the old generation this age is almost 18 or 19. In other words, now people have few more years to infect. Numbers of evidences are present which states that teenagers are having more sex and especially girls. Generally, this infection is spread through vaginal and anal intercourse and sometimes through oral sex also, and when infected mother give birth to new born then this disease is transmitted in them as well. This infection result in eye and lung infection of new born. The best way to prevent this infection is use of condoms (Healthed, n.d.; Assefa, Ishak, Stevens, Fergussen, Giles, 1998). While it must be noted that there are some other factors also which increase the risk of Chlamydia such as biological, social, cultural, and economic factors. Teenagers who are belong to neutral and single parents are more attracted to the intercourse as it increases the chance of ignorance. Some biological factors are also there such as new born child gets this infection from their mothers. When at initial stage safe sex message has been sent then it is found that almost 80% of first sexual experience is with condoms, and the main problem is continued use. One of the issues related to younger people is that if they have been with their partner for longer time then condoms may be disappearing. After few times with their partners, they change their partners and this result in more chances of attracting STI. As per one recent survey almost 80% women who are aged 16 to 25 have unprotected sex almost half of them did not even use condoms while having last sexual encounter. Government mad e various policies to deal with these issues such as using condoms, does not have sex without proper knowledge, having protected sex, take medical help in any unusual situation, etc. This infection is usually clinically silent and increases the risk factors for chronic disease. Especially in the age of 15 years, to an emphasis on screening as an important part of the clinical care that generalist remote primary health care service providers opportunistically offer (Faggan, Cannan, Crouvh, 2013). Above stated factors affect the policies and measures taken by government, as it is really difficult to change the influence of cultural factors and biological factors, and the only way through which this can be reduced is by awaking the people about the severe causes and held sex education classes for young people (Medscape, 2014). Conclusion: After considering the above facts, it is clear that STI are more common in young people especially aged 15-24 years as compared to other age groups. Such infections endanger the long term health of youth such as it is not possible to cure some STI and some STI damage the reproductive system if it is not treated. The main reason behind this disease is the increasing number of teenage sex, and now age of first intercourse is reduced as now average age of first sex is 15 years, and in the old generation this age is almost 18 or 19. References: Dehne KL., Riedner G. (2001); [Internet] Sexually transmitted infections among adolescents: the need for adequate health services. Reprod Health Matters 9: 170-183.Advocates for Youth. Young People and Sexually Transmitted infections; [Updated 2014 Feb; Cited 2017 October 18]; Available from: https://www.advocatesforyouth.org/publications/publications-a-z/2301-young-people-and-sexually-transmitted-infections. Taffa N, Bjune G, Sundby J, Gaustad P, Alestrm A(2002)Prevalence of gonococcal and chlamydial infections and sexual risk behaviours among youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Sex Transm Dis 29: 823-833. PopSugar [Internet] [internet]. Five Fast Facts: The 5 Most Common STIs in Australia; [Updated 2014 May 2; Cited 2017 October 18]; Available from: https://www.popsugar.com.au/fitness/5-Most-Common-STIs-Sexually-Transmitted-Diseases-Australia-34701057#photo-34701077. ABC [Internet]. Sexually transmitted diseases on the rise in Western Australia; [Updated 2016 December 30; Cited 2017 October 18]; Available from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-12-30/big-rise-in-stis-in-western-australia/8154350. ABC [Internet]. Sexually transmissible infections: Why are STIs on the rise in Australia?; [Updated 2017 August 16; Cited 2017 October 18]; Available from: https://www.abc.net.au/news/health/2017-08-16/why-are-stis-on-the-rise-in-australia/8774378. Assefa A, Ishak A, Stevens R, Fergussen E, Giles M, et al. (1998) Prevalence of HIV, syphilis and genital chlamydial infection among women in North-West Ethiopia. Epidemiol Infect 120: 171-177. Healthed [Internet] STI Rates in Australia. [Cited 2017 October 18]; Available from: https://www.healthed.com.au/clinical-articles/brief-update/sti-rates-in-australia/. Medscape [Internet]. Chlamydia Trachomatis Culture. [Updated 2014 December 20; Cited 2017 October 18]; Available from: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2119210-overview. Faggan, P. Cannon, F. Crouch, A. (2013). The Young Person Check: screening for sexually transmitted infections and chronic disease risk in remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth, Available from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1753-6405.12078/full.